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Visceral Leishmaniasis can remain subclinical or can become symptomatic, with an acute, sub acute, or chronic course. The incubation period usually ranges from weeks to months. The classical clinical features of VL are mailase, Fever, Anorexia, weight loss and spleno-hepatomegaly. Fever is usually of low grade and sometimes of high grade. Fever often peaks twice daily, with chills and sweats. Spleno-hepatomegaly usually occurs due to reticulo-endothelial cell hyperplesia. Hyper-pigmentation of skin, especially on the hands, feet, abdomen and fore head, is marked in light-skinned patients. Pete chiae, bleeding from nose and gums, jaundice, oedema and ascitis may occur. Emaciation is usually found. Atypical features of the disease may also occur. If untreated at right time the mortality rate of VL is very high. Most common causes of death are severe haemorrhage, septicemia and inter current infection. To prevent mortality early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Diagnosis of VL depends upon the demonstration of amastigote form of parasite in splenic aspirate or bone marrow smear. Other tests which can be used for supportive evidence are ELISA, PCR and rk39. The abnormal laboratory findings associated with disease may be pancytopenia i.e. anemia, leucopenia (neutropenia, eosinopenia, relative lymphocytosis and monocytosis), and thrombocytopenia. There may be associated hypergammaglobulinemia and hypoalbuminaemia. Significant progress has been made in the development of Drugs for VL. Pentavalent antimony compound the main stay of therapy and Pentamidine has gone out of use due to unresponsiveness and toxicity respectively. At present Amphotericin B and Oral Miltefosine are the sheet anchors of treatment of VL. In future Paromomycin and Liposomal Amphotericin B may occupy a prominent place.